Tuesday, January 14, 2014

The Iliad's Characters

So, here we have the significant  quotes for each of the characters that we have discussed up to this point. PRIAM

Priam, King of Troy, begging Achilles to relinquish the body of Hector

1. "I have endured what no other mortal on the face of the earth has yet endured, to reach forth my hand to the face of him that has slain my sons."
2. " So accompanied the old man past the guards and came into the presence of the man who had killed and maltreated his son. He clasped his knees and kissed his hands and as he did so, Achilles felt awe and so did all the other there....."
1. "Priam was killed by Neopotolemus, the son of Achilles. Achilles had spared Priam, but Achilles' son struck him down before the eyes of his wife and daughters."
2. ""In Greek Mythology, Priam was the last king of Troy, a ruler who witnessed the destruction of his city in the Trojan War. His son Paris caused the war, while another son, Hector, became the greatest Trojan hero during the long struggle with the Greeks."

Paris, Prince of Troy

1. "Hera promised to make him Lord of Europe and Asia; Athena, that he would lead the Trojans to victory against the Greeks and lay Greece in ruins; Aphrodite, that the fairest woman in all the world would be his."
2. "Paris, a weakling and something of a coward, too, as later events showed, chose the last."
1. "Paris himself, who had not fought at all, except to throw his spear, she caught up in a cloud and took him back to Helen."
2. "His single combat with Menelaus, Helen's husband, was suppose to have settled the outcome of the whole war. Instead it revealed Paris as a coward, who only escaped through the intervention of Aphrodite."
1. "In Sparta, Menelaus, husband of Helen, treated Paris as a royal guest. However, when Menelaus left Sparta for a funeral, Paris abducted Helen and also carried off much of Menelaus' wealth."
2. "What men care for most was set before him. Hera promised to make him Lord of Europe and Asia; Athena, that he would lead the Trojans to victory against the Greeks and lay Greece in ruins; Aphrodite, that the fairest woman in all the world should be his. Paris, a weakling and something of a coward, too, as later events showed, chose the last. He gave Aphrodite the golden apple."

Helen, "the face that launched a thousand ships"
1. "Then Priam brought Hector home, mourned in Troy as never another, even Helen wept. 'The other Trojans upbraided me, ' she said, 'but always I had comfort from you through your gentleness of spirit and your kind words. You were only my friend."
2. "The most fascinating things about Helen was her story. It was far better than she was. We do not see any real character development in her and have to regard her as a a pawn of the gods. The larger story is involved with the people around her, their rise and fall. She herself seemed oblivious to the horrors that surrounded her."
1. "If only death had pleased me then, grim death, that day I followed your son to Troy, forsaking my marriage bed, my kinsmen and my children."
2. "Never set food on Mt. Olympus ...never! ---suffer Paris, protect Paris, for eternity....until he makes you his wedded wife---that or his slave. Not I, I'll never go back again. It would be wrong, disgraceful to share that coward's bed once more."
1. "Aphrodite led Paris to Sparta, the home of a Greek prince named Menelaus. Helen, his wife was considered the most beautiful woman in the world. Paris fell in love with Helen and carried her off to Troy."
2. "When Menelaus returned home and discovered Helen gone, he called on the leaders of Greece, who had sworn to support him if necessary. The Greeks organized a great expedition and set sail for Troy. Their arrival at Troy marked the beginning of the Trojan War."
We discussed Menelaus, Agamemnon, Clytemnestra and Iphigenia today in class.

Menelaus, King of Sparta/Husband to Helen

1."Hear me also! This touches me most clearly. My mind is that the Acheans and the Trojans should now be reconciled. You have suffered enough this quarrel of mine and Paris. Call his grace, King Priam, as a witness, and we do not wish to violate this old man, he looks both before and behind, to see that the best is done for both sides."
2. " Paris struck first, but Menelaus caught the swift spear on his shield then hurled his own. It rent Paris' but did not wound him. Menelaus drew his sword, his only weapon now, but as he did so it fell from his hand broken. Undaunted though unarmed he leaped upon Paris and seizing him...he would have dragged him to the Greeks victoriously if it had not been for Aphrodite saving him. "

B2:1. "Menelaus and Helen received him graciously as their guest. The ties between guest and host were strong. Each was bound to help and never harm the other. But Paris broke that bond. Menelaus trusting completely to it left Paris in his home and went off to Crete."
2. "Later after Paris' death, the Trojans gave Helen to his brother Deiphobus, in whose house, on the night of the fall of Troy, Menelaus found her. He had meant to kill her on the spot, but her beauty and Aphrodite's power deterred him."

B4:1. "Menelaus saw who was making the challenge and was as glad as a lion coming on the carcass of a wild goat....He stood and looked at his rival with contempt."
2. Same as the second quote for B1..refer to the second quote for B1.
Burial mask discovered by Henrik Scheilmann. Scheilmann thought he had discovered the mask of Agamemnon. He was actually incorrect, as the funeral mask is several hundred years older than the Agamemnon of history.
B1:1. "Artemis was so angry. One of her beloved wild creatures, a hare, had been slain by the Greeks, together with her young, and the only way to create the winds and ensure a safe voyage to Troy was to appease her by sacrificing to her a royal maiden, Iphigenia....He dared the deed, slaying his child to help a war."
2. "Agamemnon, in Greek Mythology, was King of Mycenae, and a commander of the Greek forces in the Trojan War. When the Greeks had assembled at Aulis for their voyage to Troy they were held back by adverse winds. Agamemnon had killed one of Artemis' sacred hares and the young; she was angry with Agamemnon's arrogance, so she caused the winds to blow unceasingly. To punish Agamemnon, she required the sacrifice of his eldest daughter Iphigenia. "
B2:1. ""Agamemnon sent a letter to Clytemnestra and their child, Iphigenia, asking them to come and join them at Aulis, where Iphigenia he said was going to be married to the great Achilles."
2. "He insulted the goddess Artemis by bragging that he was a better hunter than she and by killing a sacred hare. As punishment, Artemis caused the winds to blow so hard that the Greek fleet could not set sail."

B4:1. "Agamemnon had been forewarned about the danger of returning home with Cassandra, yet his pride blinded him and he thought himself invinsible. He was vulnerable because he refused to listen to Cassandra, so Clytemnestra killed him."
2. Same as the second quote for B2
Clytemnestra, Queen of Mycenae, wife to Agamemnon, mother to Iphigenia, sister to Helen of Sparta

1. " She saw no reason to explain her act or excuse it. She was not a murderer in her own eyes, she was an executioner. She had punished and murdered the murderer of his own child."
2. "Dark red stains were on her dress, her hands, her face, yet she herself looked unshaken, strongly sure of herself...It was his blood that stained her dress and face and she was glad."
1: Same quote as b1
2: Same quote as b1
1. Same quote as b1
2. "Here lies my husband dead, struck down justly by my hand."
Sacrifice of Iphigenia, daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra
B1:1. "When she came to her wedding she was carried to the alter to be killed by her father."
2. "She would only send a favorable wind if the king propitiated her by offering up Iphigenia, the most beautiful of his daughters, as a sacrifice to the goddess."
B2:1. Same as B1
2. "Iphigenia was a tragic heroine. She was the first person to have her life flipped upside down because of the Trojan War and it was her death which allowed the Greek fleet to set sail for Troy. Iphigenia was extremely brave and she is the reason why the entire war was able to continue."

1. same as b1

Your FINAL exam!

Dear Mythology Kids, It's nice to "see" you again. Let me offer some "study guidance" for your final exam. Please ...