If you missed class today, we discussed the Greek underworld of Hades. Each student received handout, which we completed together. I HAVE INCLUDED A COPY OF THE HANDOUT FOR YOU AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS POST! Several images were shared with you in relationship to the areas we discussed. I have attempted to include some of the images for you below.
1. Please read the handout given to you in class about "Tantalus."
2. Please read "Orpheus and Eurydice" pg. 107 in your text. This myth illustrate how just Hades actually was. This myth will appear on your test.
The following pictures should give you greater insights into some of the aspects we discussed on Tuesday. Please make sure you obtain the information from someone else in class BEFORE you return.
This is the character known as Sisyphus. He was destroyed by Zeus due to his inappropriate sexual behavior. His pushes a boulder up a large mountain in Hades, with the one purpose of pushing it over the top. He is never successful in doing so, as the boulder always comes crashing down on him. This punishment is highly symbolic of the crime, as the rock represents Sisyphus' sexual desires. He hopes to overcome them, but he he is unsuccessful in doing so.
These women are known as the Danaids. There are fifty of them, and on their wedding night, all but one, murdered her husband by stabbing him in his heart. Their punishment in Hades is to obtain water from the River Styx with the hope of filling Hades' garden pond; however, their jars have holes in the bottom. They were never able to complete the mundane task of filling the pond. This is symbolic of the fact that they took the trivial and mundane away from their husbands; consequently, they are forever cursed with it.
This is Ixion. He attempted to rape Hera. Zeus had him strapped to a wheel of burning fire. This is symbolic of the fact that a rapist will continue to rape unless caught...hence the wheel. The fire on either side is symbolic of the pain the victim feels. Ixion was constantly burned, but never burned away. OUCH!
Tantalus is another sinner in Hades. He murdered his nephew, and then fed his flesh to the gods in the form of a stew. The Olympians were so appalled by Tantalus' behavior that they cemented him within Styx, being cursed with perpetual hunger and thirst. Each time he attempted to drink from Styx the water would move away from him. There are fruit trees hanging above his head, and yet each time he attempted to grab some of the fruit it, too, would move away from him. He is perpetually hungry and thirty. Can you recognize that each punishment is symbolic of its crime!
THE GREEK UNDERWORLD (handout given on Friday, Oct. 20th)
1. The rulers of the underworld are _________ and his queen _________.
2. The ferryman is called __________________ and he must receive an _________ in order for the dead to cross the River Styx. The coin is placed under the _________ of the deceased.
3. The three most significant rivers in Hades are:
a. The River ______ is the river of the “unbreakable oaths.”
b. The River ________ is the river of the “forgetfulness.”
c. The river Mnemosyne is the “pool of ____________.”
4. The dog __________ guards the gates, and its most distinctive physical feature is ____________________.
5. When ghosts first arrive in Hades, they are taken to the judges of the dead to be tried according to the deeds during life. They are called __________________, ____________________ and _______________.
6. ________________ is the goddess of justice. She determines if the punishments are fair.
7. There are three areas of the underworld:
a. ____________ where people are sent who ______________________________ ________________________________________________________________
b. _____________ for those who lived ___________________________________ _________________________________________________________________
c. _______________ for those who could not _______________________________ __________________________________________________________________
8. A significant motif of mythological stories is justice: defining what is right and wrong and deciding how sinners should be punished. The Greeks were extremely imaginative in punishing those they considered guilty. There are four individuals who have eternal punishment due to their actions on earth.
a. The Danaids:
9. From the surface of the earth, how does one find the entrance to Hades?
10. The FATES determine the length of one’s life. _________________ weaves the thread; the “disposer of lots,” ____________ gives each man their destiny; the most feared is ____________, as she cuts the thread and your life along with it.
11. The god of sleep, ___________________ and the god of dreams, ______________ belong to the retinue of Hades.
12. _____________ is the Greek goddess of Justice.